STARTING WITH PRIMARY CARE
FRUSTRATED BY THE RISING COSTS OF HEALTH BENEFITS FOR YOUR EMPLOYEES?
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Fewer than 50 staff and not required to provide health insurance? Providing membership at Elevated Health is a valuable health benefit that will give your employees highly personalized healthcare.
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Tangible, valuable benefits such as direct primary care can help set your business apart and enable you to keep and attract quality employees. In addition, by providing Elevated Health membership, your staff is more likely to stay healthy and stay on the job thanks to the preventative care that is inherent to our in-depth doctor-patient relationship. Your workforce will benefit from text and email access to address concerns quickly as well as same and next-day appointments. These benefits will help to reduce absenteeism and keep your employees healthy and happy.
HAVING A COMPANY DOCTOR HAS ITS BENEFITS:
65% reduction in emergency room visits
35% reduction in hospitalization visits
43% reduction in hospitalization days
100% reduction in urgent care visits (why use an urgent care when we’re almost always available)
66% reduction in specialist visits
82% reduction fewer surgeries
There are no bills to insurance, no insurance claims to be processed, just a monthly subscription paid directly to the practice by the patient or the patient's employer. That means there's no incentive to force patients into the office for an unnecessary face-to-face visit in person, when a webcam, phone call, or email exchange would do, says Robertson.
The DPC model removes the physician-patient relationship from the "toxicity" of fee-for-service reimbursement and establishes an environment more suitable for value-based care, Robertson tells HealthLeaders.
"I was a primary care doc. I know what it's like to have to be efficient and productive and to see patients quickly because the only way I can generate revenue to cover my overhead and then ultimately pay me something was to be very efficient with those clinic visits," Robertson adds, describing the DPC model as a beautifully simple solution.
"When you remove the primary care patient and the primary care physician from a fee-for-service transactional model, you really open a door to a delivery model of primary care that is the way primary care should be," he says. "I personally think this is the future of primary care."
EARLY RESULTS PROMISING
Counting employees and their families, CHI Health has about 20,000 beneficiaries on its employee health plans. Most of them take advantage of the more traditional PPO product, but a small number—about 1,130 during the first quarter of 2018—have opted into the DPC model. Preliminary results suggest it is working to both limit costs and improve patient satisfaction.
The employees who select the DPC model keep more of their paychecks and have zero deductibles and copays for primary care services, Robertson says.
"The benefits were designed to create the appropriate incentive to use primary care and to reflect the expected total cost of care savings demonstrated in these models," he adds.
When a beneficiary in the DPC model needs higher-acuity care, he or she can access the same coverage, with the same deductible for specialty services and hospital use, as their peers with PPO coverage. But early results suggest DPC participants use these more-expensive options less.
First-quarter facility and specialist claims were about $387 per member per month, according to numbers released by CHI Health. That's 20% less than the $488 PMPM facility and specialist claims recorded for PPO beneficiaries during the same time period. These raw claims data have not been risk-adjusted, but CHI Health does not expect the DPC population to be significantly healthier than the PPO population, given the plan design.
CHI Health Clinic's DPC model has outperformed traditional primary care settings in terms of patient satisfaction, too, as evidenced by Clinician and Group Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CGCAHPS) survey results, says Matt Hazen, CHI Health division director for service excellence, corporate, and retail.
The DPC clinic scored at or above the 90th percentile in 10 of the 13 CGCAHPS survey questions for January through June this year, Hazen notes. The clinic scored at the 94th percentile overall, while the entire CHI organization scored at the 64th percentile.
As both the employer sponsoring the health plan and the provider delivering care, CHI Health can access potential quality-improvement and cost-cutting benefits on both sides of the equation. What's more, CHI Health now has a proof-of-concept and staging platform on which to build direct-to-employer contracts with other companies or offer DPC services to the general public, says Pamela Ballou-Nelson, RN, CMPE, MA, MSPH, PhD, an MGMA principal consultant and former clinical quality director for Adventist Health Network in Chicago.
"If you're a health system, that's often the best way to do it: experiment with your own employees first," Ballou-Nelson says.
While it has become increasingly common for large non-healthcare employers to have on-site or near-site health clinics run by traditional providers, there are indications that the way these primary care centers operate could be poised to shift, possibly with a nudge from outside disruptors.
Apple, for example, has opted to branch out, reportedly staffing its own AC Wellness clinic to offer concierge health and wellness services to its employees in the Bay Area, rather than contracting with a hospital, health system, or a standalone DPC company.
Similarly, Amazon—which already has the healthcare industry in a tizzy over its hitherto unnamed joint venture with Berkshire Hathaway and JPMorgan Chase run by famed surgeon and journalist Atul Gawande—reportedly has plans to open clinics of its own for Seattle-area employees.
Considering the online retail giant's track record and its stated objective to disrupt the healthcare industry, it's reasonable to wonder whether Amazon might try to scale up its clinic model if it finds success experimenting on its own employees first.
All of this comes as the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services mulls what to do with information collected earlier this year on the prospect of experimenting with what CMS called "direct provider contracting" between payers and primary care or multispecialty groups.
BITS OF ADVICE
The trial-and-error slog is, of course, not new to healthcare providers. Hospitals and health systems have for generations experimented with a variety of tactics and varying degrees of success. These interrelated value-based devices and concepts include not only DPC models and ACOs but also basic principles of Patient-Centered Medical Home, Physician-Hospital Organizations, narrow networks, capitation, and others, Ballou-Nelson says.
Although there's no way to guarantee success in any of these endeavors, there's one thing you simply won't survive without, she adds: data analytics.
"You have to be able to have good data to succeed in this kind of business," Ballou-Nelson says. "You're just not going to make it if you can't collect the data from all of the participants in the plan and to have that information available, so you can analyze it and know where to go."
"We're good at collecting data in healthcare, but we're not so good at analyzing it yet," she adds.
Establishing a direct care relationship with a pool of employees gives providers access to patient data without a third-party health plan's filter getting in the way. Think of these bits and bytes of information as the building blocks for your next steps. How you refine and implement the next iteration of your strategic vision hinges on your ability to interpret what the data are saying about what does or doesn't work, Ballou-Nelson says.
CONCIERGE AND OTHER CONCERNS
Those who would criticize what CHI Health Clinic is doing are likely to cite concerns that DPC is generally too similar to concierge service. Despite acknowledging a filament of similarity, Robertson says the two should not be confused.
"Traditionally, concierge practices have charged a retainer for some additional services but would still bill insurance for visits that were delivered," he says.
That both concierge and DPC practices achieve greater levels of access and extended office visits by limiting the number of patients in a practice's panel, however, is enough for some critics to reject them both as ineffectual to solve the U.S. healthcare delivery system's problems.
"I think every patient would like the kind of care that DPC promises. I know I would," says Carolyn Engelhard, MPA, associate professor of public health sciences and public policy at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville.
"I would love to know that I could email my physician or text him or her, that I could get same-day appointments, that I could have 30-minute appointments or 45-minute appointments. I think this is the way every patient wants to be cared for; unfortunately, our healthcare reimbursement system doesn't reward that," Engelhard adds.
DPC Frontier, a website founded by Phil Eskew, DO, JD, MBA, a steering committee member for the Direct Primary Care Coalition, has mapped nearly 900 DPC practices across 48 states and the District of Columbia, including several DPC sites established by Strada Healthcare in Omaha. The details vary significantly from practice to practice, but many of these DPCs operate independently from full-spectrum health systems.
Such local initiatives are, argues Engelhard, more likely to further fragment the care continuum than they are to solve national problems.
"By having DPC as a cottage industry and a carve-out from a larger healthcare system, you're actually sort of, in my view, going backwards," Engelhard says, likening DPC's vision of primary care to the nostalgic manner in which a solitary physician might be depicted in a Norman Rockwell painting.
"I would like to think that the leaders in our healthcare systems around this country are part of the solution nationally and not just trying to focus in on their little part of the world," she says, "because they're never going to be able to change the big picture of it unless we get our hands around some of these larger issues that are national in scope."
Those big-picture priorities should include offering incentives for careers in primary care, grappling with excessive waste and fragmentation, and figuring out how to make healthcare generally more affordable, Engelhard adds.
But proponents of DPC contend the model actually helps to accomplish at least some of the preferred priorities Engelhard identifies.
Self-described DPC "zealot" Christopher Larson, DO, founder and CEO of the DPC practice Euphora Health, based in Austin, Texas, says many of those who criticize the DPC model are academics who fail to distinguish it from concierge care.
"I don't know that those arguments are thought out with an intimate knowledge of direct primary care that a direct primary care doctor would have," says Larson.
With regard to concerns that DPC's smaller panels could reduce patient access to care, Larson has two responses. First, if DPC can reduce physician burnout and make primary care generally more enjoyable for providers, then it will make a career in primary care more attractive to physicians, perhaps increasing the number of practicing physicians enough to offset the smaller panels. Second, while DPC panel sizes will always need to be smaller than their general primary care counterparts, the panels may not need to be as small as some assume, thanks to technology.
Larson's practice in Austin has contracts with two large employers: one is 160 miles away in Houston, and the other is 370 miles away in Lubbock. That's possible because Euphora Health offers "virtual DPC." Larson travels to each site a couple of times per year and cares for patients remotely in between.
Larson, a member of the American College of Osteopathic Family Physicians (ACOFP), is one of the many independent physicians who have ventured out on their own to experiment with direct primary care, many of them opting out of Medicare entirely.
These independent doctors who swap DPC advice during summits hosted by ACOFP may seem quite a bit different from the executives steering the nation's largest health systems. But leaders at CHI Health and elsewhere see something worth emulating.
"We know that other small employers have begun to see the power of this model for their employees, and personally, I think it will continue to grow as a preferred option for primary care," Robertson says.
There's just one CHI Health Clinic offering DPC today. But a second clinic in Omaha will transition to the DPC model in January. And the system could add as many as two or three more sites within the next five years, Robertson says.
If the model proves itself to be scalable and preliminary results hold steady, then DPC could offer not only a better way to do primary care but also a sturdy foundation for further experimentation, offering risk-averse health systems an avenue to explore direct-to-employer relationships.
“WHEN YOU REMOVE THE PRIMARY CARE PATIENT AND THE PRIMARY CARE PHYSICIAN FROM A FEE-FOR-SERVICE TRANSACTIONAL MODEL, YOU REALLY OPEN A DOOR TO A DELIVERY MODEL OF PRIMARY CARE THAT IS THE WAY PRIMARY CARE SHOULD BE.”
CLIFF ROBERTSON, MD, MBA, CEO OF CHI HEALTH
Steven Porter is an associate content manager and Strategy editor for HealthLeaders, a Simplify Compliance brand.